Mary Papazian served as New Haven, Southern Connecticut State University 11 st rector from 2011-16. In 2016 Dr Papazian was elected San Jose State University rector. In the university 159-year old hisotry, Dr. Papazian is the third female rector. She was one of the keynote speakers of WCIT2019 panel in her interview at SHANTNEWS.am, Dr. Papazian confesses that she want to learn to speak Armenian, and she makes "dolma" at home. In her interview she also said; «I had a chance to speak about technologies and education and their combination. I do hope that my speech will become a motivating step to take. Holding this event in Armenia enabled IT professionals to know Armenia. As a result I reckon the links between the world and Armenia will become stronger and the world will change its attitude to Armenia. This is a small country with a big diaspora which makes bringing the world to Armenia easier. I first came to Armenia in 1974 since then I have been using any opportunity of coming back to Armenia. Now I make Armenian dishes more often at home, I am learning to speak Armenian», she said.
Dr. Papazian is actively engaged in national and regional volunteer leadership, serving on the boards of the Higher Education Resource Services (HERS), Association of American Colleges and Universities, NCAA Division I, Business-Higher Ed Forum, California Campus Compact, Bay Area Council, Silicon Valley Leadership Group, and Joint Venture Silicon Valley. She and her husband both also are actively involved in Armenian historical and cultural efforts.
According to Dr. Papazian, although John Donne and John Milton lived centuries ago, their voices, passions and warnings continue to ring true to our modern ears. Their explorations through powerful language of the moral battles between self and duty, between good and evil and between church and state continue to inform Mary Papazian’s approach to university leadership and the essential role of San José State, Silicon Valley’s public university.
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (Byron) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognise that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and to have published the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as one of the first computer programmers. Ada Byron was the only child of poet Lord Byron and Lady Byron. Byron separated from his wife a month after Ada was born and left England forever four months later. Her mother remained bitter and promoted Ada's interest in mathematics and logic in an effort to prevent her from developing her father's perceived insanity. Despite this, Ada remained interested in him, naming her two sons Byron and Gordon. Upon her eventual death, she was buried next to him at her request. Although often ill in her childhood, Ada pursued her studies assiduously. She married William King in 1835. King was made Earl of Lovelace in 1838, Ada thereby becoming Countess of Lovelace.
Her educational and social exploits brought her into contact with scientists such as Andrew Crosse, Charles Babbage, Sir David Brewster, Charles Wheatstone, Michael Faraday and the author Charles Dickens, contacts which she used to further her education. Ada described her approach as "poetical science" and herself as an "Analyst (& Metaphysician)".
When she was a teenager, her mathematical talents led her to a long working relationship and friendship with fellow British mathematician Charles Babbage, who is known as "the father of computers". She was in particular interested in Babbage's work on the Analytical Engine. Lovelace first met him in June 1833, through their mutual friend, and her private tutor, Mary Somerville. Between 1842 and 1843, Ada translated an article by Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea on the calculating engine, supplementing it with an elaborate set of notes, simply called "Notes". Lovelace's notes are important in the early history of computers, containing what many consider to be the first computer program—that is, an algorithm designed to be carried out by a machine. Other historians reject this perspective and point out that Babbage's personal notes from the years 1836/1837 contain the first programs for the engine. She also developed a vision of the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching, while many others, including Babbage himself, focused only on those capabilities. Her mindset of "poetical science" led her to ask questions about the Analytical Engine (as shown in her notes) examining how individuals and society relate to technology as a collaborative tool.
Ada Lovelace died in 1852 and is buried in the Bayrons' family cemetary. In 1975 USA Ministry of Defence passed an act on developing a universal new programing language and named in ADA after her. In science Ada Lovelace's day is celebrated in mid-October with the aim to raise women's engagement in STEM encouraging people in the world to speak about the women whose contribution in humanity is worth admiration. This international Day help people to to learn about talented women , to encourage others to make role models both for young and elderly people.
Hedy Lamarr was an Austrian-born American actress, inventor, and film producer. Although Lamarr had no formal training and was primarily self-taught, she worked in her spare time on various hobbies and inventions, which included an improved traffic stoplight and a tablet that would dissolve in water to create a carbonated drink. Among the few who knew of Lamarr's inventiveness was aviation tycoon Howard Hughes. She suggested he change the rather square design of his aeroplanes (which she thought looked too slow) to a more streamlined shape, based on pictures of the fastest birds and fish she could find. Lamarr discussed her relationship with Hughes during an interview, saying that while they dated, he actively supported her inventive "tinkering" hobbies. He put his team of scientists and engineers at her disposal, saying they would do or make anything she asked for.
During World War II, Lamarr learned that radio-controlled torpedoes, an emerging technology in naval war, could easily be jammed and set off course. She thought of creating a frequency-hopping signal that could not be tracked or jammed. She conceived an idea and contacted her friend, composer and pianist George Antheil, to help her implement it. Together they developed a device for doing that, when he succeeded by synchronizing a miniaturized player-piano mechanism with radio signals.They drafted designs for the frequency-hopping system, which they patented. Their invention was granted a patent under U.S. Patent 2,292,387 on August 11, 1942 (filed using her married name Hedy Kiesler Markey). However, it was technologically difficult to implement, and at the time the US Navy was not receptive to considering inventions coming from outside the military.Nevertheless, it was classified in the "red hot" category. It was first adapted in 1957 to develop a sonobuoybefore the expiration of the patent, although this was denied by the Navy. At the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, an updated version of their design was installed on Navy ships. Today, various spread-spectrum techniques are incorporated into Bluetooth technology and are similar to methods used in legacy versions of Wi-Fi. Lamarr and Antheil's contributions were formally recognized in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (Copy of U.S. patent for "Secret Communication System")